Exchange rates on 21.05.2013
Tajikistan represents unique tourist sight of the present as possesses a great cultural-historical heritage, the original culture, a favorable geographical location, variety of natural landscapes, recreational zones, flora and fauna.
The history of Tajik nation takes its roots from the ancient times at the beginning of human civilization. Discovery of the first relics of the Stone Age in 1956 was distinctive sensation. 60 items with findings of stone tools were identified in the territory of the country. More than 10 thousands of tools made of stone were excavated in the discovered settlements located at the altitude of 4200 meters above sea level, in hard-to-reach areas of highlands.
They are big tools such as scraping knifes, scrapers, digging tools, which have Paleolithic traditions in processing. Mainly, age of the discovered relics of the Stone Age is dated to VIII-V millenniums B.C. The ancient paintings - petroglyphs, figures of animals, people or general compositions made on rocks or separate stones present individual, very specific fields of archeological studies in Tajikistan and to date, more than 10 thousands of paintings on rocks have been discovered. Mountains and valleys of Tajikistan, people resided in its territory are mentioned as far back as in ancient sources of ancient authors - Pliniya and Ptolemeya. Venetian traveler – Marco Polo wrote about his trips to the Pamir.
State of Samanids
At the beginning of IX century, the tendency to national self-determination of the nation became apparent, the first state formations of Tajiks took place, the largest of which was the State of Samanids with its capital in Bukhara town, the founder of which was Ismoili Somoni from the dynasty of Samanids. Documentary witnesses, left by the travelers and scientists visited to the State of Samanids, show about the structure of the public administration.
Ismoili Somoni is the founder of the State of Samanids.
Tajiks made significant contribution to spiritual treasury of civilization, and presented to the world prominent and notable scientists, literary men, philosophers, poets and architects, the works of which became an integral part of scientific and cultural knowledge accumulated by the world civilization. As examples of that, lyric poetry of founder of Tajik-Persian literature – Abyabdullo Rudaki, immortal national-epic poem “Shahname” written by Abdulokosim Firdavsi received into itself legendary history of Persian and Tajik, and “Canon of Medical Science” written by Abyali Ibn Sino (Avitzenna) - the treatise, which was the medical manual in educational establishments of Europe over period of many centuries .
Scientists – Al-Khorazmi, Al-Forobi and Abyraihon Beruni, and such superstars (according to Goyte) on the sky of world poetry as Khayyam, Rumi, Saadi, Khafiz, Jami, masters of art works as Borbad, Mani, Behzod and Movarounnahr (Couplet) were well known far beyond of ancient Soghd, Khorasan and Movarounnahr - the main territory of present Central Asia.
Silk Road. Trading.
The territory of Tajikistan from the ancient times was located at important historical ways of the Great Silk Road connecting the East and West. It occupied significant place in international trading and cultural exchange, connecting the lands of Bactria – Taharistan (Chaganin, Shumon, Ahorun, Kubodiyon, Vakhsh, Khutal, Rasht, Kumed, Darvoz, Vanj, Rushan and Vahan), Soghd, Istravshan, (Ustrushan) and Fergana with India, Afghanistan and China.
The Great Silk Road was not only for exchange of goods between the East and West but exchange of ideas, cultures and people. As a result, a certain cultural community and unique combination, which present “western” as well as “eastern” features with different levels of intensity, took place.
The Great Silk Road was famous by weapon made in Sogd. The fact is known that governors of Sogd in 718 year have presented chain armour which local armorers have imitated to China and have extended in the Chinese army.
Soghd goods made of leather and the jewelry, silk clothes and coloured salt had good reputation. Soghd exported “golden peaches”, white and yellow cherries, sheep and graceful fast horses, which made an impression on foreigners.
At present, due to development of international trade and economic relations, the Great Silk Road has become the symbol of friendship, mutual understanding and good relation between nations of countries situated along this road. The World Tourist Organization (WTO) and UNESCO in cooperation with national tourist agencies of the Republic undertake measures for development of tourist and hotel infrastructure of this region considering the rich cultural-historic heritage of nations living along the Great Silk Road.
Over the years of independence, the Government of RT implemented significant projects to rehabilitate and construct new motor roads having international importance. The motor road Kulyzb-Khorog-Kulma with following access to Karokarum roadway was put into operation dedicated to 1100 anniversary of Samanids’ State.
This road connects Tajikistan with China and Pakistan and gives an opportunity to have access to seaways that creates good basis for touristic exchange and implementation of WTO project “Tourism on the Silk road”.
At present, ancient historical, cultural and handicraft traditions are enshrined in ancient towns of Tajikistan – Khujand, Istravshan, and Kulyab, view of which has considerably changed. To this day, there are still outstanding dynasties of masters of gold embroidery goods, masters for producing of silk, tallit, batik, ikka, gulduzi, skull caps, weavers, jewelers, masters of cold weapons, masters of ceramists, goods of which are well known all over the world.
Among the tourists visited these ancient towns, ethnographic tourism is the most popular, where besides study of historical traditions, culture and way of life of nation, tourists under guide of outstanding masters have opportunity to learn basis and skills of ancient forgotten handcrafts.
Kairakkum water reservoir is called as Tajik sea located to the east of Khujand, formed as a result of construction of hydropower plant on the Syr Darya River, which has become beautiful place for the rest of tourists. The sanatoriums, rest houses and campings located in beautiful orchards have been constructed on its banks.
Present-day Tajikistan is mountain country with absolute altitudes ranging from 300 to 7495 meters above sea level. 93% of the territory is mountain ranges of Pamir, Gissar-Alay and Tien Shan mountain system. The mentioned mountain ranges are divided by rich and fertile lands of Fergana, Zeravshan and Gissar valleys. Nonuniformity of relief and high amplitude of altitudes of mountain systems specifies exclusive diversity of flora and fauna.
Tajikistan is the region of the highest peaks, large glaciers, and tumultuous rivers, inimitable lakes in their beauty, unique vegetation and rare animals. Just mountain, terrace-like landscape specifies originality and uniqueness of Tajikistan’s nature, richness of its forms taken place by diversity of climatic zones.
There 125 centers of touristic and sanitaria and health orientation including 51 hotels, 9 sanatoriums and the remaining part includes rest houses and zones, touristic camps, children's health camps. Majority of hotels is located in Dushanbe, Khujand, Kurga-Tube, Kulyab and Khorog.
Tajikistan has 3 international airports in Dushanbe, Khujand and Kylyab.
The territory of the Republic is crossed with 3 branches of rail roads, which connects central, northern and southern regions of the Republic through the territory of neighboring countries – Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
On basis of 13 existing state-owned nature reserves and conservations – “Zorkul”, “Romit”, “Mozkul”, “Dashti Jum” and also Tajik national park, unique ecology, landscape and nature relics are preserved in original view. Also, rare endangered species of flora and fauna included in the Red Book are preserved such as goat with cockscrew horns (markhoor), mountain wild sheep (Marko Polo sheep), Bokharan mountain wild sheep (ureal), Bokharan sika deer, snow leopard, Siberian brown bear, striped hyena, and Indian bar- eaded goose.
There are 84 species of mammals, more than 365 species of birds, 49 species of reptiles, about 52 species of fishes and more than 10000 species of insects in the territory of the Republic.
The flora of Tajikistan has more than 5000 thousands species of plants, among them there are many endemics. The territory of Tajik national park is 2,6 million hectares, which cover 18 percent of the territory of the country and 60 percent in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast of the Republic.
Over the last years, the Board of National Park actively implements measures to develop the infrastructure of ecological tourism and to improve ecological situation in highlands of the Pamir.
One of the unique corners of nature in upper course of Amu Darya River is called as “Tigrovaya Balka”. Animals such as noble deer-khangul, desert antelope - goitered gazelle, leopard, jungle cat, hyena, black-golden pheasant, desert patridge-chil, eagle, wild pig, badger and porcupine inhabit in this area.
Among vermigrade, Central Asia cobra, lebetina viper, carpet viper and numerous groups of other innocuous snakes are valuable for science and medicine.
There are such fishes as trout, marinka, fresh-water catfish, snakehead, carp, grass carp in rivers and lakes, and in downstream of Vakhsh River, there is ancient relict fish – scaphiringus.
In territory of Tajikistan there is located great Pamir - one of the well-known uplands of globe with true altitude from 2800 till 7495 m above sea level, known all over the world as «roof of the world». Here tourist resources are climbing routes on the highest mountain peaks - Ismoili Somoni and Evgenii Korzhenevsky, located on height more than 7000 thousand metres, hunting area, natural landscapes, caves and mineral sources thermal and cold, carbonic and silicic waters.
Annually in Tajikistan are conducted the International climbing expeditions where climbers from the different countries of the world make ascensions on the highest mountain tops of the country. In order to subdue peak of Ismoil Somoni (7.495 metres) and high-altitude pole of Pamir climbers from all continents aspire.
Man-made unique nature sanctuary on Pamir is the Pamir botanical garden located at height 2320m above sea level close to Khorog. This garden against fruitless slopes is the green miracle where is collected over 20 thousand plants from all continents. Among them such rare and strange copies of plants, as the Amur velvet, pith tree, a black Austrian pine and a unique collection of roses with the cleanest tones and incomparable aroma.
The unique relief of the given region favors to development of tourist campaigns and tracking to a various category of complexity, employment by special sports, such as rock-climbing, mountaineering, mountain skiing, mountaineering in a combination to hunting and photo hunting, rafting, a paraplanerism, snowboarding, speleotourism and other kinds of extreme tourism.
Tajikistan is the richest country with fresh water resources. Practically half of water resources of the countries of central Asian region are formed in the high-mountainous rivers, lakes and country glaciers.
The republic of Tajikistan on hydropower resources takes the eighth place in the world. Especially mountain-Badahshansky autonomous region of republic is very rich with the lakes having the most various origin. Largest of them are Karakul, Zorkul, Rangkul, Shorkul, Bulunkul, and also lake Sarez which was formed as a result of earthquake in 1911. As a whole in Pamir region in the range of heights from 3200 to 5000 metres, 1450 lakes and 220 rivers, or 83 % of a total area of lakes in Tajikistan are concentrated.
The greatest lake of Pamir is the salty unique lake Karakul located at height of 3914 metres above sea level. Its depth is 236 metres. It is considered that it was formed in a glacial age and lake bottom and also its some coast on many kilometers are covered by permafrost.
In territory of Tajikistan functions about 200 sources of mineral and thermal waters where developed sanatorium-and-spas. Most known of them resort are «Hodzha Obi Garm», sanatorium "Shaambari", «Obi garm», "Zumrad", "Havatag".
In sanatorium and resorts of Tajikistan services on treatment of illnesses of cardiovascular system, respiratory organs, skeletal-muscular system, urinary systems, gynecologic diseases, gastrointestinal tract, liver and bile-excreting and also skin diseases are rendered. On hot carbonic sources of sanatorium "Garmchashma", "Bashor" and "Shahdara" are formed travertine- limy sediment of incrustive forms.
They are especially beautiful on the source of Garmchashma located in 35 km from Khorog. The source of Garmchashma is at height 2325м above sea level and is swept up from apart thanks to an exclusive whiteness travertine. Travertine represents a long shaft, openwork ledges going down to the river. On its slopes the accrete stalactites making impression of stiffened cascades and stone bowls overhang. On ledges natural baths with water of various temperature (to 62*С) are formed.
Mountains Fanskiy which are located between Zerafshan and Hissar mountains from Kshtutdari to Fandari are especially popular among tourists and climbers. Today mountains Fanskiy most accessible from high mountains of the country for tourists. In a stone thicket of these mountains has taken place the bluish-green water plane Iskandarkul which is the biggest lake of Fanskiy mountains located in northern Tajikistan. It is widely stretched at height of 2200 metres. Here tourists can observe blinking of stars and a fog of lake rising from a surface.
On the bank of lake in 160 km from Dushanbe is located the camp site "Iskandarkul". Tourists pass this way on motor vehicles through the surprising gorges Fandari, Jagnoba and Iskanderdarya. Mountains around seem multi-colour as in them prevail bluish, red and lilac tone. Gorge Iskandardarya sometimes calling gorges of colour rocks and forces of winds have transformed them into fanciful serfdom-based wall and castles.
A lot of the interesting expects fans of travel and in the south of Tajikistan. One of the most ancient cities of Central Asia, Kulyab city in 2006 has celebrated 2700 anniversary which became significant event for the country.
In loessial strata close to Baldzhuvan area the Tajik archeologists have dug out stone tools, most ancient of found in the Central Asia, - their age 850 thousand years. Unique parking of Neanderthal men in Dangara area at a cave of Ogizkichik with the centres where was revealed 15 thousand of charred armors of turtles.
The great interest is represented for foreign tourists of sight of beautiful vicinities of ancient Hutalja nowadays by cities of Kulyab. The mountain Hodzha Mumin a unique natural monument which entirely consists of pure salt of different colours, pale-yellow and grey is especially attractive which has color bluish green and pink. Reserve of salt of this mountain can provide all mankind for many hundreds years.
One more miracle of Hodzha Mumina - its caves which are famous with its musicality. It appears that wonderful sounds the wind touching as if generates keys, the long and thin glass icicles-stalactites hanging at entrance of caves. A unique monument of history and architecture is the mausoleum of the outstanding thinker and the religious personality of IV century Mir Said Ali Hamadoni in the city of Kulyab where religious pilgrimage making the follower of sufy doctrine.
Natural-recreational resources of the republic, presence of history monuments and culture predetermine features of the generated national tourist product, advancement and which realization in the world markets of tourist services provides a stream of foreign tourists to Tajikistan.
In this plan the priority kinds of the international tourism in the country are considered:
- rock climbing, mountain-sports and ecological tourism;
- Rafting, pair gliding, mountain skiing;
- inter hunting;
- Hystorical-informative and ethnographic tourism;
- sanatorium-and-spa treatment and rest
Today in Tajikistan the competitive tourist complex is formed and operates more than 100 tourist enterprises. For the purpose of development of international tourism in republic the Government accepted decision on simplification of visa regime.
Accepted decisions by Government of the Republic of Tajikistan about the declaring of Varzob, Baldzhuvan and Romit areas of sanatorium treatment, rest and tourism which promotes for development of tourist branch.
In order to see and feel color and exotic of Asia, it is necessary to visit Tajikistan, to visit its rich and various markets with abundance of vegetables and fruit, to walk in shady historical small streets of old cities, to sit in tea houses covered with an openwork ornament, to drink fragrant green tea, to have a talk with people, to study their traditions, culture and a life, to learn good nature, greatness and wisdom of the Tajik people.