Exchange rates on 20.05.2013
National flag - an official state symbol (a rectangular panel from three equal horizontal strips: top - black, middle – red, and bottom - gold color).
The State Emblem - an official state symbol (a black eagle with red paws on a gold background). Germany is formed on May 23, 1949 - day of acceptance of the Constitution. On October 3, 1990 Deutsche Demokratische Republic has joined to its sphere of action. This day (date of association of Germany) is the National holiday - Day of German unity. The capital of country in June 1991 was declared Berlin (3,4 million inhabitants). Moving of the government and parliament from Bonn to Berlin has finished in 1999. Monetary unit - euro (since January 01, 2002).
The federal Republic of Germany is located in center of Europe. Borders with nine states: in the east - with Poland and Czech, in the south - with Austria and Switzerland, in the West - with France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands and in the north - with Denmark.
The territory area - 357 023 km2. The Longest length from the north to south - 876 km, from the West to the east - 640 km. Total length of border - 3 758 km.
The population - over 82,5 million persons, basically are Germans. In Brandenburg and Saxony live Sorbs (100 thousand people), in the north, in Schleswig-Holstein, - Danes (50 thousand people).
In the country also live 7,3 million of foreigners. From them 1,87 million are Turks, 1 million – from former Yugoslavia, 0,6 million - Italians, 350 thousand - Greeks, 250 thousand – from CIS.
President of Bundestag
|Norbert Lammert (CDU)
Date of birth: November 18, 1948. In position: since October, 2005. October 27, 2009, reelected for the second mandate
The higher legislative authority belongs to Federal parliament which consists of two chambers: the Bundestag and chambers of federal lands Bundesrat. Deputies of Bundestag are selected by population for a period of four years.
Half of deputies are selected in election divisions by majority system by direct voting and other half by party lists in each land on proportional system. In Bundestag can be presented the parties which obtained in elections not less 5 % of votes by party lists. The president of Bundestag officially is considered the second higher official in state.
In the legislative activity the Bundestag closely co-operates with the Bundesrat. Prime ministers and ministers of federal lands, and also burgomasters and senators of Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg can be members of the Bundesrat. Each federal land has from three to six voices depending on population.
The Bundesrat structure changes in process of elections in Landtag (parliaments) of lands. Now in Bundesrat there are 69 full members. Other members of land governments can be replacing members of Bundesrat, therefore in practice the Bundesrat consists of all members of land governments, therefore Bundesrat name is «Parliament of land governments».
Presidential term of Bundesrat is one year and after that becomes prime ministers of federal lands (since November 1 of current year till October 30 of the next year).
Since November 1, 2008 in Bundesrat the land Saar presides, then: Bremen (2009-2010); Northern Rhine-Westphalia (2010-2011); Bavaria (2011-2012).
Bundesrat competence covers approval of draft laws accepted by Bundestag requiring modification of German constitution and concerning mutual relations between federation and federal lands and also federal lands interests.
At coordination of simple laws there would be enough 35 voices of full members, for enactment of laws in which there are provision about modification of Constitution of Federal Republic of Germany or constitution of federal lands, - 46 voices.
|Angela Merkel (CDU)
Date of birth: July 17, 1954.
In position: since November 2005.
The federal government is the executive power supreme body in Germany. It is headed by Federal chancellor (now - Angela Merkel, CDU).
The chancellor is selected for four-year term absolutely majority of Bundestag from the party members, who won in parliamentary elections.
According to the Constitution, the Federal chancellor defines the basic provisions of state policy and bears for it responsibility and establishes the cabinet. Federal ministers head the corresponding ministries. Under the ministries can be established specialized federal departments.
In structure of central body of executive power of Federal Republic of Germany are included: Department of Federal chancellor and Department on press and information which are subordinated directly to the Federal chancellor.
Now in Germany operate more than 20 political parties which consist about 2 % of population of the country. As a result of the past elections on September 18, 2005, in the Bundestag 5 largest parties of Germany are presented:
Social-democratic party of Germany (SDPG) are 591 076 members. SDPG is one of two the largest common German parties. In 2005 SDPG has not won in parliamentary elections, but together with CDU/CSU has entered in so-called «big governmental coalition».
The Christian Democrat Union (CDU) and Christian-Social Union (CSU) are independent parties which operate in the block and form uniform fraction in Bundestag. Following the results of elections of 2005 the block, along with SDPG had entered into the coalition government of Germany. There are 579 526 members in CDU.
Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP) - 62 721 members. The party adheres to a liberal orientation. The basic support from businessmen and industrialists.
«Union-90/Green» - 46 631 members. Has established at federal level in 1979 from association of several regional environmental protection groups. The party «Union 90» has been formed in Deutsche Demokratische Republic on November 24, 1989. In 1993 there was an association of both parties.
The left party (Die Linkspartei) is based in summer 2005 by members of former socialist party of Deutsche Demokratische Republic and taken away from SDPG the left wing led by former chairman Oscar Fontaine.